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Chapter 1: Background and Data

This section contains basic information and data about the rates of obesity in Baltimore City and the impact of obesity on maternal and birth outcomes.

Weight and Birth Outcomes

Maternal overweight and obesity contribute to the high infant mortality rate in Baltimore City. Obesity is associated with higher rates of miscarriages [1], preeclampsia, caesarean delivery, and postoperative complications. In addition, women who have excess weight are almost three times as likely to experience infant stillbirth and neonatal death compared to non-obese women [2].

Children of obese mothers are also at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for macrosomia (birth weight greater than eight pounds), which increases the infant’s risk for risk for birth trauma and hypoglycemia. They are more likely to suffer from shoulder dystocia and congenital malformations and are at higher risk of unexplained death [3].

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

The following three tables provide data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Baltimore City. For comparison purposes, Table 1 provides the most recently available population-level data from the U.S., Maryland, and Baltimore City. Tables 2 and 3 present data from Baltimore City on maternal obesity and maternal BMI, by race and ethnicity.


 

Table 1: Percent of Population that is Overweight/Obese [4]

 

ADULT

FEMALE

ADULT

YOUTH

(9th to 12th grade)

FEMALE

CHILD

MALE

CHILD

USA

2011-2012

---/34.9 %

---/36.1 %

---/13.0 %*

---/9.8%*

---/16.1 %*

MARYLAND 2011

36.1/28.3 %

29.9/27.9 %

----/12.0%

---/10.5%

---/13.4%

MARYLAND 2012

36.2/27.6 %

30.2/28.7 % from nccd.cdc by sex

---

---

---

BALTIMORE 2011

28.9/37.4 %

SMART CDC 201110

---/40%

---

---

---

*Data from 2011. Data Source: CDC, High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBSS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1992011 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data.  Available at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline. Accessed on [Dec 04, 2013).

 

Table 2: Maternal Obesity by Race/Ethnicity, Baltimore City Residents ONLY, 2012 [5]

Maternal race/ethnicity

Not Obese

Obese

Total

 

 

 

 

NH White

1,950

429

2,379

%

81.97

18.03

100

 

 

 

 

NH Black

3,312

2,279

5,591

%

59.24

40.76

100

 

 

 

 

Hispanic/Latina

470

140

610

%

77.05

22.95

100

       

 

Table 3: Maternal BMI by Race/Ethnicity, Baltimore City Residents Only, 2012 [5]

Maternal Race/Ethnicity

Normal weight (<=24)

Overweight (25-29)

Obese (30 +)

Total

 

 

 

 

 

NH White

1,359

591

429

2,379

 

57.12

24.84

18.03

100

 

 

 

 

 

NH Black

1,878

1,434

2,279

5,591

 

33.59

25.65

40.76

100

 

 

 

 

 

Hispanic/Latina

271

199

140

610

 

44.43

32.62

22.95

100


 

References

[1] Bellver J, Rossal LP, Bosch E, Zúñiga A, Corona JT, Meléndez F, Gómez E, Simón C, Remohí J, Pellicer A. Obesity and the risk of spontaneous abortion after oocyte donationFertility and Sterility. 2003 May;79(5):1136-40.

[2] Kristensen J, Vestergaard M, Wisborg K, Kesmodel U, Secher NJ. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology2005 Apr;112(4):403-8.

[3] Andreasen KR, Andersen ML, Schantz AL. Obesity and pregnancyActa Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 2004 Nov;83(11):1022-9.

[4] Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009–2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.pdf

[5] Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Prevalence and Trends Data. Maryland - 2011 Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/display.asp?cat=OB&yr=2011&qkey=8261&state=MD

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